The final text of the Data Governance Act (DGA)

Article 4, Prohibition of exclusive arrangements

1. Agreements or other practices pertaining to the re-use of data held by public sector bodies containing categories of data referred to in Article 3(1) which grant exclusive rights or which have as their objective or effect to grant such exclusive rights or to restrict the availability of data for re-use by entities other than the parties to such agreements or other practices shall be prohibited.

2. By way of derogation from paragraph 1, an exclusive right to re-use data referred to in that paragraph may be granted to the extent necessary for the provision of a service or the supply of a product in the general interest that would not otherwise be possible.

3. An exclusive right as referred to in paragraph 2 shall be granted through an administrative act or contractual arrangement in accordance with applicable Union or national law and in compliance with the principles of transparency, equal treatment and non-discrimination.

4. The duration of an exclusive right to re-use data shall not exceed 12 months. Where a contract is concluded, the duration of the contract shall be the same as the duration of the exclusive right.

5. The grant of an exclusive right pursuant to paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, including the reasons as to why it is necessary to grant such a right, shall be transparent and be made publicly available online, in a form that complies with relevant Union law on public procurement.

6. Agreements or other practices falling within the scope of the prohibition referred to in paragraph 1 which do not meet the conditions laid down in paragraphs 2 and 3 and which were concluded before 23 June 2022 shall be terminated at the end of the applicable contract and in any event by 24 December 2024.

Understanding Cybersecurity in the European Union.

1. The NIS 2 Directive

2. The European Cyber Resilience Act

3. The Digital Operational Resilience Act (DORA)

4. The Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER)

5. The Digital Services Act (DSA)

6. The Digital Markets Act (DMA)

7. The European Health Data Space (EHDS)

8. The European Chips Act

9. The European Data Act

10. European Data Governance Act (DGA)

11. The Artificial Intelligence Act

12. The European ePrivacy Regulation

13. The European Cyber Defence Policy

14. The Strategic Compass of the European Union

15. The EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox